Judaism

   The Jewish faith has a long history in Russia, dating back to at least the 4th century. Casimir the Great’s invitation to Ashkenazi Jews to settle in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth made the religion an important minority faith across medieval Eastern Europe. While Jews were generally free to practice their faith under the Romanovs, they faced institutionalized discrimination and the almost constant threat of violence from the Slavic Orthodox Christian population.
   During the Soviet period, vigorous antireligion campaigns during Joseph Stalin’s reign resulted in the shuttering of most of the country’s synagogues (as well as churches and mosques). The Holocaust further weakened the status of Judaism in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Under glasnost, a revival movement among Russian Jews began to grow, though many believers sought to immigrate to Israel or the United States rather than rebuild Judaic traditions in Russia. Cultural organizations established in the late 1980s such as Va’ad (Confederation of Jewish Communities and Organizations) attempted to reintroduce the celebration of Jewish holidays, offered instruction in Hebrew, and established contacts with Jewish religious organizations abroad.
   In the post-Soviet period, rediscovery of Jewish identity has become common, and many young Russian Jews are embracing the faith of their ancestors. New synagogues have been built and old ones reopened, often with the financial support of Jewish oligarchs. Today, yeshivas for religious instruction operate in St. Petersburg and Moscow, and Jewish summer camps have become popular in recent years. Judaism is protected by the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a native or local religion, alongside Orthodoxy, Islam, and Buddhism. However, in 2009, two Hassidic rabbis from North America were deported for visa violations in a move that worried Jewish communities bereft of religious leaders after decades of state-sponsored atheism. Major Jewish groups in the Russian Federation include the Congress of Jewish Religious Communities and Organizations under Adolf Shayevich, the Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia, and the Russian Jewish Congress.

Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. . 2010.

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  • Judaism — • Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Judaism     Judaism …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Judaism — Ju da*ism, prop. n. [L. Juda[ i]smus: cf. F. juda[ i]sme.] 1. The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses, and for many adherents, in the Talmud. J. S. Mill. [1913 Webster] 2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Judaism — (n.) c.1400 (attested in Anglo Latin from mid 13c.), from O.Fr. Judaisme and directly from L.L. Judaismus (Tertullian), from Gk. Ioudaismos, from Ioudaios Jew (see JEW (Cf. Jew)). The Anglo Latin reference is to a special tax levied on the Jews… …   Etymology dictionary

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  • Judaism — /jooh dee iz euhm, day , deuh /, n. 1. the monotheistic religion of the Jews, having its ethical, ceremonial, and legal foundation in the precepts of the Old Testament and in the teachings and commentaries of the rabbis as found chiefly in the… …   Universalium

  • Judaism — This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews. Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candl …   Wikipedia

  • Judaism — n. Conservative; Liberal (BE), Progressive (BE); Orthodox; Reform Judaism USAGE NOTE: Liberal Judaism and Progressive Judaism in Great Britain are approximately equivalent to Reform Judaism in North America. Reform Judaism in Great Britain is… …   Combinatory dictionary

  • Judaism — A monotheistic world religion with origins in the prophetic activities of the Jews in relation to the God Yahweh. It is important to distinguish early biblical Judaism, before the fall of the Temple in 70CE, and later Judaism which was focused on …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Judaism — noun /ˈdjuːˌdeɪ.ɪz.əm/ A world religion tracing its origin to the Hebrew people of the ancient Middle East, as documented in their religious writings, the Torah or Old Testament. See Also: Conservative Judaism, Jew, Jewish, Judaic, Judaica,… …   Wiktionary

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